18 February 2022
Frances Donald, Global Chief Economist & Head of Macroeconomic Strategy
Major central banks worldwide are becoming increasingly hawkish in response to rising inflation, and markets are interpreting that as a sign that interest rates could get much higher sooner. Will they follow through?
Central bank hawks swooped across the globe in recent weeks. The Bank of England (BoE) hiked interest rates for the second time in three months on February 3 amid inflationary concerns. Notably, four out of the nine members of the bank’s Monetary Policy Committee voted for a 50 basis points (bps) hike. This after the Bank of Canada (BoC) signaled on January 19 that a rate hike in March was effectively a done deal.
Incidentally, the European Central Bank (ECB), which is widely seen as the last remaining dove among global central banks, also struck a significantly hawkish tone at its rate-setting meeting (also on February 3) on the back of unexpectedly high European inflationary data released the day before. The ECB’s Governing Council said it has “unanimous concerns” about inflation, and ECB President Christine Lagarde declined to confirm—as she had done in previous press conferences—that “interest-rate hikes are very unlikely” this year. The market reacted accordingly: European yields jumped, the yield curve flattened, and the spread between German and Italian yields widened aggressively.¹
Meanwhile, on the other side of the Atlantic, several U.S. Federal Reserve (Fed) members emphasized that a March rate hike was certainly in play, although many pushed back against a 50bps move, and a few—including Philadelphia Fed President Patrick Harker—noted that four rate hikes this year could make sense, validating what markets have priced in so far. Indeed, Fed officials seemed undeterred by market volatility.
Yet, these central banks’ rosy outlooks and seeming urgency to lift rates are out of sync with how we expect the global economy to develop in the coming months. As we highlighted in our 2022 outlook, we expect to see a material growth slowdown in the first half of 2022. The key ingredients for slowing growth are all there: significant fiscal tightening, declining liquidity, tighter monetary policy in emerging markets, the lagged impact of a slowing China (in 2021), lower Purchasing Managers’ Indexes, and a weakening U.S. consumer. These factors are likely to produce uncomfortably low growth just as central banks communicate their policy normalization plans. Problematically, while we expect inflation to fall back precipitously in the second half of the year, it likely won’t fall far enough to enable these global central banks to change their messaging until well into the second quarter.
Synthesizing what we’ve heard from central banks with our own high-conviction views, we end up with five key central bank themes for the next six months.
There are many good reasons why central banks are keen to normalize monetary policy; however, whether they can implement their plans at the pace they intend to will ultimately depend on how rapidly macroeconomic conditions change.
1 Bloomberg, as of February 8, 2022.
Hong Kong/Mainland China market update
Despite the market fall, we believe that the China Q4 2023 GDP growth trend has already been priced into the index, with some bright spots being neglected. Mainland China’s four mega trends (i.e., the “4As”) remain intact as better-than-expected inventory destocking and increased policy measures suggest a potential bottoming of the economy.
India’s bond index inclusion: Attracting foreign investment; bolstering its regional position
Indian government bonds would be included in the JPMorgan Government Bond Index-Emerging Markets (GBI-EM) Global index suite starting in June 2024. We examine the short- and long-term implications of this significant decision for the Indian bond market.
Transitioning to India’s next stage of growth
India’s growth agenda is well embedding the primary driver of digitisation that supports the formalisation and reinvestment policies underpinning manufacturing expansion. This is starting to show results with visibly improved capital expenditure and industrial order books, as well as a narrowing current-account deficit and a healthier inflationary picture.